Mandating workplace drug testing
In others, however, the result of technological innovation has been an increase in the repetitive nature and intensity of tasks, a reduction of the margin for individual initiative and the isolation of the worker.
Furthermore, several companies have been reported to increase the number of work shifts in an attempt to extract the largest possible economic benefit from their financial investment (ILO 1984).
In some cases, the introduction of computers has rendered work more interesting and resulted in improvements in the work environment and reductions of workload.
Finally, little linguistically and culturally appropriate software is available, and training in computer-related fields is often problematic (Young 1993). Computerization has significantly increased in the countries of the former Soviet Union since the end of the Cold War.
The Russian Federation, for example, is estimated to have increased its stock of computers from 0.3 million in 1989 to 1.2 million in 1993.
We should not therefore be surprised that most studies of VDUs have focused on office workers.
In industrialized countries, however, computerization has spread to the primary and secondary sectors.
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As the statistics indicate, there is a very wide international variation in the extent of computerization, the computer:population ratio ranging from 0.07 per 100 to 28.7 per 100.